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Nutrition Information Resources
The lives of women around the world have improved dramatically, at a pace and scope difficult to imagine even 25 years ago. Women have made unprecedented gains in rights, education, health, and access to jobs and livelihoods. More countries than ever guarantee equal rights in property, marriage, and other domains. Gender gaps in primary schooling have closed in many countries, while in a third of all countries girls now outnumber boys in secondary school, and more young women than men attend universities in 60 countries.
Women are using their education to participate more in the labor force: they now make up for 40 percent of the global labor force and 43 percent of its farmers. Moreover, women now live longer than men in every region of the world.
Despite the progress, gaps remain in many areas. Women are more likely to die-relative to males-in many low- and middle-income countries than their counterparts in rich countries-especially in childhood and during their reproductive years. Primary and secondary school enrollments for girls remain much lower than for boys in many Sub-Saharan African countries and some parts of South Asia, as well as among disadvantaged populations. Women are more likely than men to work as unpaid family laborers or in the informal sector, to farm smaller plots and grow less profi table crops, operate in smaller firms and less profitable sectors, and generally earn less. Women-especially poor women-have less say over decisions and less control over household resources. And in most countries, fewer women participate in formal politics than men and are underrepresented in the upper echelons.
The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development argues that closing these persistent gender gaps matters. It matters because gender equality is a core development objective in its own right. But it is also smart economics. Greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative.
Building on a growing body of knowledge on the economics of gender equality and development, the Report identifies the areas where gender gaps are most significant-both intrinsically and in terms of their potential development payoff-and where growth alone cannot solve the issues. It then sets forth four priorities for public action:
-Reducing excess female mortality and closing education gaps where they remain
-Improving access to economic opportunities for women
-Increasing women's voice and agency in the household and in society
-Limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations.
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The Journal of Maternal and Child nutrition has recently published an article by the author Judy Aubel, who argues that the nutritional status of infants and young children in developing countries highly depends on the adoption of optimal nutrition-related practices within the context of the household. She concludes the study by emphasizing the need to re-conceptualize the parameters considered in nutritional policies and programmes. She suggests an approach which expands the focus beyond the mother-child dyad to include grandmothers given their role as culturally designated advisers and caregivers.
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Received through the Michigan State University's Food Security Group, the author, David Tschirley, argues that rising urban populations and per capita income growth in Sub-Saharan Africa are creating major opportunities for local farmers, and that fresh fruits and vegetables (FFV) stand to be important winners from this growth due to high income elasticities of demand and opportunities to add value. FFV also holds great promise to improve income opportunities for women and for the most land-constrained farmers (many of whom are women), due to high production values per unit area of land. Yet the constraints to exploiting these opportunities are often most intractable for precisely those female and land-constrained farmers who could most benefit. This policy synthesis summarizes best available evidence on the types of farmers that have been able to take advantage of the opportunities presented by FFV and draws key programmatic conclusions.
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The Landscape Analysis of readiness to accelerate action in nutrition is a systematic approach to assessing where to invest and how to best invest to accelerate action in nutrition. It has the following three components:
- Desk analysis of country readiness - This involves comprehensive analysis of secondary-data indicators in 36 countries with a high burden of stunting (these countries were the initial focus of the analysis). The desk analysis uses multiple statistical methods to define country typologies of readiness which was defined by "commitment ̶ willingness to act" and "capacity ̶ ability to act". For the desk review, commitment was measured by "nutrition governance" indicator which was formulated by WHO using key elements required in countries for the processes by which policies and programmes are developed and implemented to achieve nutrition security, and capacity was measured using proxy measure of health care capacity.
- In-depth country assessments - To date, country assessments had been carried out in 18 countries: Burkina Faso, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Peru, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Timor-Leste.
- Nutrition landscape information system (NLIS) (http://www.who.int/nutrition/nlis/).
The tool package of the Landscape Analysis country assessment provides guidance on "how to":
- plan a country assessment
- adapt tools for respective country context
- undertake preliminary desk review (including stakeholder mapping)
- conduct interviews and collect information
- analyse data using the analytical framework which provides indicators for assessing readiness as function of commitment and capacity to scale-up nutrition action
- organise a country stakeholders' consensus meeting
To access the full document, available in English and French, please click here. For more information, please click here.
UNDP has released the Human Development Report 2011 "Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All". The Report argues that the urgent global challenges of sustainability and equity must be addressed together and identifies policies on the national and global level that could spur mutually reinforcing progress towards these interlinked goals.
It also projects a disturbing reversal of those trends if environmental deterioration and social inequalities continue to intensify, with the least developed countries diverging downwards from global patterns of progress by 2050.
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New at IFPRI: 2011 Global Food Policy Report
IFPRI launches the 2011 Global Food Policy Report, a new annual publication that provides a comprehensive, research-based analysis of major food policy challenges at the global, regional, national, and local levels.
The report highlights important developments and events in food policy that occurred in 2011, discusses lessons learned, offers policy recommendations, presents IFPRI's food policy tools and indicators, and takes a look forward into 2012.
To read the report online, please click here.
The Copenhagen Consensus 2012 results are available!
In 2012, the Copenhagen Consensus Center's flagship project Copenhagen Consensus 2012 provides an answer to the question:
If we had an extra $75 billion to put to good use, which problems would we solve first?
The project, a culmination of 18 months of planning, research-writing and preparation, builds on the success of two past Copenhagen Consensus projects: Copenhagen Consensus 2004 and Copenhagen Consensus 2008.
The Copenhagen Consensus 2012 Expert Panel finds that fighting malnourishment should be the top priority for policy-makers and philantropists.
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The 2012 edition of the Mediterra report takes the mobilising potential of the Mediterranean Diet as a basis and proposes a multidimensional itinerary involving sociodemographics, health, ecology, enterprise, geo-economics and citizens' initiative.
Produced by CIHEAM (The International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies of Montpellier), the Report was launched at a Press Conference organized in Paris on 7 March 2012.
The report is available in English and French and can be downloaded free of charge.
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Aid for Nutrition: Can investments to scale up nutrition actions be accurately tracked?
Action Against Hunger has just released a new report, Aid for Nutrition, which provides donors, aid recipients and other stakeholders with a detailed analysis of current spending on nutrition and of the adequacy of current aid reporting systems. It also provides recommendations on what can be done to scale up the response to undernutrition effectively.
Investments in nutrition are currently inadequate with the majority of funding going towards direct nutrition interventions in response to humanitarian crises, reflecting the short term nature of aid for nutrition. Furthermore, nutrition aid is not always directed to countries with the highest burdens of undernutrition, many donors fail to honour all commitments, and poor donor reporting practices have hindered transparency and accountability. Based on their findings, Action Against Hunger recommends that donors must commit to aid transparency principles by improving reporting practices, that donors and governments increase their investments in direct or nutrition specific interventions, that the treatment and prevention of undernutrition be also targeted in non-emergency situations, and that an annual review of investments in nutrition be done to keep the paucity of funding for nutrition high on the political agenda.
To read the report, please click here. To consult the Action Against Hunger website, please click here.
The new CMAM Forum has been launched!
The UNSCN is part of the steering group of this Forum, an information sharing mechanism which aims to bring together resources and initiatives related to the management of acute malnutrition. Please follow this link to become a member and access key resources on Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition: http://www.cmamforum.org/
Sustainable Diets: what it means, why it matters and what can we do about it
8 August 2012, Rome - Immediate action to promote sustainable diets and food biodiversity so as to improve the health of humans and of the planet is urged in a book just published by FAO and Bioversity International. Access the press release here.
In "Sustainable Diets and Biodiversity", prominent scientists, policy makers and practitioners discuss the linkages between agriculture, health, the environment and food industries. This groundbreaking publication explores the concepts of sustainable diets and how they relate to the production and consumption of the food we eat. Sustainable diets are foreseen as an important element for a shift towards sustainable development and a green economy and there is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies that emphasize the positive role of food biodiversity in human nutrition and poverty alleviation.
To access the publication please click here.
Nutrition has increasingly been recognized as a basic pillar for social and economic development. For the accountability of nutrition related global movements, a monitoring progress towards agreed upon international targets is essential.
This publication presents the results of the harmonization effort and reports, for the first time, joint UNICEF-WHO-World Bank prevalence and number estimates of child malnutrition for 2011 and trends since 1990. Estimates for the four anthropometric indicators are presented by United Nations, Millennium Development Goal, UNICEF, WHO regional and The World Bank income group classifications.
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Assessment of iron bioavailability in humans using stable iron isotope techniques
A new book has been published within the IAEA Human Health Series: "Assessment of iron bioavailability in humans using stable iron isotope techniques".
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Researchers from Gent University and the Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp have assessed the effect of specialised energy dense food supplements in the framework of a general food distribution on the prevention of acute child malnutrition. This did not result in the expected outcome: children receiving the supplements were growing a little bit more in length, reported less episodes of diarrhoea and fever, and were less like to be anaemic. However, compared to children that received only the food rations, supplemented children did not gain more weight and had an equal risk to be become undernourished.
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Save the Children and World Vision presented their ‘Nutrition Barometer' during a panel discussion on stunting in children on 26 September, in New York. For the presentation of the Nutrition Barometer, an interesting panel was invited to provide comments, including Ertharin Cousins (Executive Director, WFP), David Nabarro (UN SG Special Representative for Food Security and Nutrition), Brendan Rogers (Director General, Irish Aid), and 2 panel members from Indonesia and Kenya. The discussion was moderated by Jasmine Whitbread (CEO, Save the Children).
The Barometer provides a snapshot of national governments' commitment to addressing children's nutrition. It measures governments' political and legal commitment as well as their financial commitment.
The document can be downloaded here.
WFP Executive Director Ertharin Cousin, who was on the panel, took the opportunity to present her vision of the UN network's role in supporting national and global efforts to reduce undernutrition. Ms Cousins mentioned that "nutrition is not health or agriculture, but that it is both. We don't have the luxury of focusing on one sector; we have the obligation to deal with all." Ms Cousins further added that the UN has the Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN) at the global level and REACH at the country level to support countries who are in the lead.
"Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition". This is the new key message of the FAO "The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012 ".
The State of Food Insecurity in the World raises awareness about global hunger issues, discusses underlying causes of hunger and malnutrition and monitors progress towards hunger reduction targets established at the 1996 World Food Summit and the Millennium Summit. The publication is targeted at a wide audience, including policy-makers, international organizations, academic institutions and the general public with a general interest in linkages between food security, and human and economic development.
The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012 is published jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Fund for Agricultural Development and the World Food Programme.
For more information, please contact: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org or visit the website.
You can download the report by clicking here.
For more details on the The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012, please click on the link below
Interesting compilation of articles on hunger and malnutrition, spanning the last 30 years from Michael Lipton, Margaret Buchanan-Smith, Mona Sharma, Paul Howe, Jeremy Swift, Richard Longhurst, Simon Maxwell, Ian Scoones, Stephen Devereux, John Thompson, Biraj Swain, Geoff Tansey and Harsh Mander and others.
All the articles in this IDS publication are available online and free of charge.
To download click here.
The State of Food and Agriculture, FAO's major annual flagship publication, aims at bringing to a wider audience balanced science-based assessments of important issues in the field of food and agriculture. Each edition of the report contains a comprehensive, yet easily accessible, overview of a selected topic of major relevance for rural and agricultural development and for global food security. This is supplemented by a synthetic overview of the current global agricultural situation.
For more information, please contact Terri Raney or visit the website.
The publication can be downloaded here.
For more details on The State of Food and Agriculture 2012, please click on the link below
Essential Nutrition Actions: Improving maternal, newborn, infant and young child nutrition
WHO has issued a consolidated package of guidance on nutrition targeting the first 1,000 days of life. This publication contains essential nutrition actions (ENA) that policy-makers could implement to reduce infant and child mortality, improve physical and mental growth and development, and improve productivity. The package is divided in 2 parts:
- Part I presents the interventions currently recommended by WHO, their rationale and evidence and describes the actions required to implement them. The document uses a life course approach, from pre-conception throughout the first 2 years of life.
- Part II analyses the implementation of ENAs in operational large-scale programmes, gives their effectiveness when delivered in an integrated fashion as well as their implications for designing future programmes and sustaining existing ones.
The report can be downloaded here.
Global nutrition policy review: What does it take to scale up nutrition action?
The Global nutrition policy review analysed policy environment and governance, policy implementation in specific nutrition areas, policy coherence (identification of stakeholders and coordination mechanism) and the implementation of monitoring and evaluation.
The Review is based on a questionnaire survey conducted during 2009-2010, in which 119 WHO Member States and 4 territories participated. Results are presented by regions and complemented by the results of the in-depth country assessments of the Landscape Analysis on Countries' Readiness to Accelerate Action in Nutrition initiated by WHO in 2008. Though the Review identified a number of gaps in the design, content and implementation of these policies and programmes, it appears that much progress has been made since ICN 1992 in the design and implementation of national nutrition policies and plans of action.
The report can be downloaded here
The Lancet Nutrition Series are launched on 6th June 2013 !
Five years after the initial series, The Lancet re-evaluates the problems of maternal and child undernutrition and also examines the growing problems of overweight and obesity for women and children, and their consequences in low-income and middle-income countries.
The Series highlights the availability of proven interventions that could address the persistent burden of malnutrition, presenting the best evidence and latest developments in the field.
Articles, papers and comments can be downloaded here.
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